Marked and Unmarked Terms in the English Language


In binary oppositions:

Marked and unmarked terms are frequently being used in binary oppositions. It means that a term is not equal in its weight, but the one (unmarked) is neutral or more positive in contrast to the other term. As Geoffery leech observes, where there is a contrast between two or more terms, tenses or cases, one of them is marked if it have some extra ‘affix’ in contrast to the unmarked one which does not contain any marker. For example the cat is an unmarked and neutral term while cats is marked with a suffix -s, similarly actor is an unmarked term while actress is a marked term with an affix -ess, also polite is a positive term in contrast to its negative term ‘impolite’. In general the plural of nouns in English language are marked term (books) in comparison to the singular (book). In French language the feminine is generally marked and the masculine is unmarked term for instance petit in contrast to petite; however, in English if sex is marked it is done lexically.i.e. by giving special words to one sex and none for the other one, for example word duck is a female term which is unmarked while maleness is marked by drake which is absent in duck and this word gives services for the whole specie. Moreover in the pronouns opposite marking is being observed, that is male as an unmarked term and female term as marked one. For example,

One in HIS senses would not do a thing like that (unmarked)

One in HER senses would not do a thing like that (marked by femaleness)

It is the male sex who is marked because the first statement could refer to either gender, but the second one will specify it for femaleness.

In polar oppositions:

The same kind of marked/unmarked distinction is observed in polar oppositions as well (having two poles) good/bad, rich/poor, day/night, low/high, short/long and we prefer to measure things by the mean of length rather than the shortness. We would rather ask how long this cloth, than how short this cloth is, or how high this building is instead of how low this building is. Because the former will give a neutral expression which mean it could be long or short, while in latter we are left with only one possibility of being short. It does not only rely on the scale of measurement but can also be used in such cases,

How WELL does she speak French? Very poorly

How BADLY does she speak French? Like a native

The first statement is neutral and different from the second one which is marked in this context thus the answer is completely different.

Markedness can be defined as the relationship between the form and meaning. If there is a contrast of two different forms on a single dimension the unmarked one would be neutral one and could be applied on the whole dimension rather than a specific aspect of it. It could be argued that this phenomenon is due the negative-positive inherent to the semantic opposition itself. Normally the unmarked one is considered positive while the marked one is taken a negative term for instance, happy/unhappy, complete/incomplete, stable/unstable; however, in some cases there is an invisible element of negation, like it is easy to define dead by not alive than alive by not dead.

Polyyanna hypothesis:

The detailed explanation of markedness is given on the basis of psychological or experiential ground for which some psycholinguists have given a so called hypothesis called “Pollyanna hypothesis” according to which people tend to think more positively towards life and pay more heed to brighter side of life which provides an argument for associating good with ‘unmarked’ terms and bad with ‘marked’ suffixes and prefixes.

In relative opposition:

There is also a chance of bias in relative oppositions but it is better to call this ‘dominance’ instead of ‘markedness’ for instance in parent/child, front/behind, right/wrong the first term seems to be more dominant than the other one, thus we prefer to place the dominant term before (parent-child) or maybe giving one name to both terms using dominant one (ownership). Markedness and dominance seems to have variation in strength but it deeply depends upon the psychological basis. There is no logical significance in giving symbols to these terms of oppositions. The distinction between ‘dead’ and ‘alive could be given equal logical explanation as +dead/-dead as by -live/+dead because both of these are logically equivalent. This shows that the unmarked term has gained the discrimination of + and upward arrow while the dominant term of a opposition has gained the right arrow.
But the distinguishing term for the marked term is never omitted and the neutralization of the opposition is still indicated (oparent, oright, ogood etc)

Ruth Kempson rule:

To account for lexical ambiguities due to markedness Ruth has given a rule. For this rule we can take dog and bitch as an example.

If a) there are two words W1 and W2 having meanings m1 and m2, and m1 differs from m2 only in having an extra feature -X

And if b) there is no word like W3 with meaning m3 and m2 differs m3 in having an extra feature of +X

It means that m3 is an additional meaning of W1. (m2 and m3 are co-hyponyms of m3 and thus W1 is an unmarked term). This rule accounts for all the ambiguities having first term as more general containing an extra feature while the second one as more specific one. There is also an explanation for other type of ambiguities, such as it is a tautology to say that a calf is a young cow, but on the other hand it is not the tautology to say that this is a cow not a calf. This is how ambiguity through same words is created. There can also be some of the hierarchical structures for the same word.

The Spirit of the Universe and the Invention of the Wheel

It has been a mystery that many have pondered over the years. Who invented the wheel and why? It is depicted in ancient hieroglyphs and imagery in rock art dating to the Neolithic. The Spirit, however, showed me a vision that prompted me to look further back in the records to find its precursor in the Stone Age. An image located at Tata, Hungary, dates to over 400,000 years ago and is a circle/cross symbol etched on a nummulite fossil.

As part of my research into the origin of language and religion the Spirit, with which I have a strong link following my reincarnation, sent me on a learning curve. Shown how ancient mysteries and secrets are preserved it is time to expose their meaning and how they now form a trap to bring the false gods to an end.

What was unknown by them as people changed from hunter-gatherers to sedentary life was the structure of the universe. They thought of the world as a flat surface because they never figured out the curvature of it. The end of the earth was the ocean which, in their minds, rose up in a circular shape above the earth.

They worked this out on the colours and the horizon which, to an untrained mind, showed the rise of the water as it blended the sky and ocean together. Add to these things the lack of language, which was basic at best, and the poor attitude towards record keeping.

To them everything was a circle. The earth was contained in a big circle. The universe above them is a circle. The sun, which they worshipped as their god, is a circle. Without anything to change their assessment of the planet no one dreamed that it too is a sphere.

As things developed due to sedimentation they used symbols and sounds associated with such to develop language as a vehicle of communication. Invention, borrowing, and things like clicks, claps, and knocks, were all part of the mix. Some languages still work with them, such as that of the !Kung people of the Kalahari Desert and the !Quichuan speakers of Mexico. (The symbol! stands for ‘click)

Possibly the first sounds related to the simple ones that could be formed easily with the mouth and required no voice box were mostly glides, stops, and vowels sounds. The latter fall into this category and [o], [a], [e], [i], and [u], figured in their speech. That is beside the fact that some languages developed complicated double vowels while others use only three or four.

Using the letter [o] as a starting point and that of [i] as its mate the combined sounds of ‘io’ and ‘oi’ means God in Maori and Judaism. ‘Io’ became ‘jo’ when the letter [j] was introduced and ‘joy’ or ‘joi’ means ‘ultimate happiness’.

With the combined circle/cross symbol known from hundreds if not thousands of years previously the wheel was a product of it. Depictions show them as basic designs with the right-angled cross as the spokes. Later depictions have six and then eight spokes that are required for strength.

It did not take long before the wheel became a means to create a vehicle. The first chariots are shown in the Assyrian capital drawing dating from some 8-10,000 years ago. Egyptian chariots were more sophisticated and the European ones copied their style.

English – A Language Close to My Heart

English has always been a subject close to my heart! Even though I have no qualms in accepting that I never scored above 60% in the language in school.

There is a funny notion in our heads; rather an assumption: if one speaks flawless English (any other language for that matter), we conveniently assume that the person would have scored really well on that language in school as well. This is rather a shock for people who don’t realize that speaking and writing skills may not necessarily be at the same level for an individual.

I know of people who struggle to articulate simple thoughts in the language; however, they exceed expectations when you ask them to pen those thoughts down.

More often than not, I believe that your schooling plays a crucial role in your comfort with a certain language. For example: In my case, the only exposure I ever got in English was at school. Just that much exposure was enough for me to be fluent in the language.

But then again, how about the grammatical knowledge of the language? I was fluent and had no issues whatsoever in expressing or articulating my thoughts comfortably. However, after I stopped studying grammar in school; I lost touch with theoretical knowledge of English grammar and; therefore, was unable to identify various parts of speech in a sentence.

Once I entered college, I still wasn’t sure what I wanted to do with my life. I was quite unsure of the career that I would like to like to opt for. After completing my graduation I worked in a few places just to gather experience – again without any clarity of where I would want to go in terms of my career. In of these random jobs I came across a person who identified the skill of being a good English Language Trainer in me. He advised me to make my career in training. His judgement only came from the knowledge that I could speak well. I took his advice and started applying for jobs where my language skills could be used. Finally, I landed a job as a Voice Coach. During the interview they specifically asked me if I was comfortable with theoretical aspect of English Language – to which my answer was a definite ‘NO’.

I thought I would not get a call from the firm. However, they called me a few days later saying that they like my confidence and command on spoken English; however, grammar is something that I will have to work on. After I joined I had to undergo a Train the Trainer session with experienced trainers – This session helped me to understand the nuances of grammar.

This is when I asked myself – ‘Is it really important for one to learn English Grammar to be able to speak well?’. My answer was – ‘NO’. However, if one wishes to make a career in the field, then certainly along with spoken fluency, one must also get acquainted with the foundation of the language. Theoretical knowledge of grammar helps trainers to offer explanations to students when they get stuck. It facilitates quick and logical learning in students.

Concerning Cancer and Plato’s Science of Human Survival

Scientists are telling us that we must stop polluting the oceans with rubbish or face catastrophic consequences. Over two thousand years ago Plato, using geometrical logic, was well ahead of that problem. He replaced fanatical aggressive religious emotion with an evolving ethical emotive mathematics belonging to his axiom that “All is Geometry”. His educational system was specifically designed to gain spiritual scientific access to infinity rather that getting any illusory deity’s permission to do so.

Plato’s atomic ‘Science for Ethical Ends’ was outlined in his ‘The Republic’ to guide an ennobling system of government for the health of the universe. That concept was far greater than stopping the pollution of the oceans. Its specific objective was, that by becoming an integral emotional part of universal wellbeing, civilization would not become extinct. Plato was advocating a medical solution to the problem of tribal compulsion to evolve by developing weaponry. His life’s work is now considered to be the crucial basis for the ethical workings of an infinite living holographic universe.

Plato’s mathematical logic about infinity did not need permission to understand its nature by being subservient to warring gods. He constructed a spiritually ethical scientific map in order to gain understanding about the nature of infinity, to replace the compulsion driving tribes to kill each other. However, Plato’s human survival science’s mathematical logic could not possibly become functional until the biological necessity for tribal science to wage wars of survival became an observable form of a mental cancerous disorder.

When DNA revealed that humans belong to a single species harming itself, tribal science was diagnosed as a form of cancer in 1972. The founding father of the American National Cancer Research Foundation the Nobel Laureate in Medicine, Szent-Gyorgyi, referred to this cancer as being inherited from our Neolithic ancestors.

Many cancer researchers now argue that cancer, being unique to biological systems, is an essential part of the evolution of tribal science but not necessarily part of the evolution of species. Tribal science is associated with the sexual compulsion to destroy life in obedience to the ‘kill or be killed’ survival of the fittest paradigm observed in nature. Male dominance to impregnate females desiring offspring best suited to protect the tribe from other predators led to the evolution of human intellect through the development of weaponry.

The transformation of tribal science to one that will work for all members of the human species is now a medical problem requiring antidote information. Such information is readily available but has been incorrectly classified by tribal medical science as belonging to obsolete junk DNA. This vital non-junk information can be found in human survival communication and information devices recently discovered throughout the entire length of DNA itself.

Plato’s research was destined to become the basis of an atomic science belonging to the workings of a holographic universe. It warned of a far greater threat to civilization than throwing physical rubbish into the sea. Plato referred to a destructive ‘evil’ belonging to the properties of unformed matter within the physical atom. His research led to a human survival map to follow so that civilization could avoid extinction from developing a science leading to the emergence of this nuclear destruction from within the atom.

Plato used the effects of the magnetic properties of lodestone upon human emotional thought, to construct his spiritual human electromagnetic survival compass. He argued that illusory artistic, aesthetical, pleasurable excitement spread the seeds of tribal conflict and required a spiritual ethical wisdom as an antidote to such demonizing of primitive, tribal, artistic emotion. He very clearly pointed out the electromagnetic direction associated with future human survival. It started with the chaos of unformed matter within the dark abyss moving forward to create light and matter.

The European Space Agency’s Planck Observatory, which mapped the existence of the oldest light in the universe, revealed that it was asymmetrical in nature. Therefore, Plato’s electromagnetic human survival direction was one that started from nuclear chaos and moved toward the creation of asymmetrical light. In 1957 the New York Library of Science published the book “Babylonian Mythology and Modern Science”, stating that Einstein derived his theory of relativity from the mythological, mathematical intuitions belonging to Babylonian culture.

Einstein’s quantum mechanistic tribal worldview required physical reality to belong to a state of symmetrical balance. His observer participant theories associated with the nature of symmetrical light instead of asymmetrical light simply headed backwards from human survival to the chaos of unformed matter.

Einstein, being locked into Babylonian tribal science had every right to perceive certain aspects of Babylonian mathematics as belonging to great genius. However, Babylonian understanding of the nature of infinity was governed by warring gods and goddesses that forbade any mathematical access to infinity. This fear of infinity is made clear written on baked clay Babylonian tablets recording the mythological conflict that followed when one of the gods bestowed immortality to a keeper on the Ark during the Great Flood. Another tablet exists showing mathematical deceit was purposely embedded into the Babylonian legal system to enslave the populace to a warlike sexual violence. That legality became embedded into the functioning of global tribal science.

The Sumerian culture measured time as a seven day week with days of twenty four hours and each hour of sixty minute duration, together with direction being measured from a circle containing three hundred sixty degrees. These mathematical concepts were destined to one day become an integral aspect of deep space exploration.

The Babylonian culture developed the more ancient astrological Sumerian mathematics in order to predict eclipses. A clay tablet written by a Babylonian priest to the King exists. It advises him of the forthcoming 673BC Lunar eclipse, which the gods demanded was to be used to terrorize the populace. The people were thereby to be animated into a sexual frenzy to wage war through the worship of their goddess of prostitution and war, Ishtar. This was required by ‘the gods’ in order to expand the boundaries of the Kingdom.

Einstein’s tribal science logic led toward the chaos associated with unformed matter within the dark abyss. His quantum mechanics and every other aspect of his tribal sciences were governed by the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that inevitably all energy becomes unavailable to support life as chaos steadily increases, causing all life in the universe to become extinct. Einstein could never have known that during the 21st Century quantum biology cancer researchers would discover that healthy living information flowed in the opposite direction to the energies of chaos.

As the cancer researcher Szent-Gyorgyi has insisted, healthy living information entangled itself with the energies of chaos in order to evolve universal consciousness. He wrote that the cause of cancer was an incorrect understanding associated with the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

The mathematician Georg Cantor has been acclaimed to be the greatest mathematician in history as well as the most despised one. He agreed with Szent-Gyorgyi’s observation that modern science’s understanding of the Second Law of Thermodynamics carried a mental carcinogenic disorder. He classified this disorder as “a myopic fear of infinity inhabiting the modern scientific mind”. His ‘pagan’ heresy attacked the salaried security of every scientist employed by Christian University scientific research departments throughout the Western educational system. Cantor was driven to his deathbed because these influential Christian scientists created incorrect mathematical theorems ridiculing his now accepted mathematical description of infinite reality.

Isaac Newton believed that Plato’s evolving, infinite universe was scientifically authentic. In his published 28th Query Discussions he wrote that the first cause of gravitational force was certainly not created by the mass of objects in space but by a spiritual force in accordance with ancient Greek science. Although accused of being insane for this criminal heresy his earlier writings that the church had been theologically incorrect suggests that he was well aware of what he had written. His nervous breakdown may well have been brought about by the threat of being burnt alive for publishing that heresy.

We do know for certain that the Christian Church incorrectly promoted the false claim that Leonardo da Vinci was a genius master of the Great Italian Renaissance. The teaching of Plato’s human survival atomic educational system, banished by the Emperor Justinian in the 6th Century, had moved to Toledo in Spain to later become the basis of Islam’s Scientific Golden Age. Sultan Memhed II later provided the Medici Scholars in Italy with the relevant scholarly manuscripts belonging to Plato’s Academy, to be reinstated in Florence during the 15th Century.

Plato’s education system of an ennobling political science to nullify the threat of unformed matter bringing about nuclear destruction was explicit. It consisted of arithmetic, plane geometry, solid geometry, astronomy, and harmonics. Once these were mastered then the student could proceed to philosophical research. Plato argued that plane geometry must not be studied for its practical uses but for training the mind in spiritual mathematics. He let arithmetic become the first of the subjects of education, after which research into its relevant science was to become the student’s concern associated with a future ethical, atomic science.

Leonardo da Vinci, as the Chief Military Engineer of the Pope’s Army was employed by a Christian tribal cult engaged upon waging wars of conquest on behalf of its religious faith. He wrote a statement that completely divorced his tribal scientific genius from Plato’s human survival concept of ethical science. From his published Notebooks, Leonardo had written “The first object of the painter is to make a flat plane appear as a body in relief and projecting from that plane… “, he incorrectly claimed that the flat plane of a painting surface could never contain a true 3D image.

During the 20th Century the artist Salvador Dali, familiar with Plato’s scientific worldview was convinced that paintings could contain important invisible, stereoscopic 3D images. His famous 3D art exhibition, now on show at the Dali Stereoscopic Museum in Spain proved indisputably that Leonardo was not correct in arguing otherwise. Although it suited the purpose of the Church to claim that he was a master of the Renaissance, this was certainly not the case.

Australian Science-Art researchers in partnership with the Australian Sustainability Research Institute, Italian quantum biological cancer researchers and Quantum Art International presented this crucial human survival information to the public, along with paintings presenting far clearer 3D images than Dali had pioneered. By viewing the paintings through 3D, asymmetrical, electromagnetic, stereoscopic glasses much clearer interlocking planes became visible without the technical equipment used to pioneer Dali’s evolving medical phenomenon. Leonardo da Vinci had no understanding whatsoever that the flat plane of a painting’s surface could contain the spiritual human survival information that Plato had predicted.

During 2016 such human survival theory, along with the visual evidence, was presented to the International Contemporary Art Competition held under the auspices of the World Fund for Arts in Moscow during the Russian Art Week. After being awarded a First Prize that organization instigated a relevant Science-Art Research Project in 2017, in association with the Quantum Art Group International Movement and leading Italian quantum biology cancer researchers. 

Many prominent scientists during the 20th Century claimed that Plato’s research laid the foundations for modifying the prevailing mechanistic worldview in order to understand the working of a holographic universe. The Journal of Neurophysiology, established in 1938, publishes articles on the function of the nervous system. During the 21st Century it published about experimental, holographic evidence that is relevant to Szent-Gyorgyi’s cancer research. That evidence was about living 3D optical information interacting with Einstein’s extinction processes to evolve universal consciousness. This line of research opened new avenues for mapping holographic activity, within the brain, associated with the importance of evolutionary theory for understanding cancer.

One paper in particular, entitled ‘Human Cortical Activity Correlates with Stereoscopic Depth Perception’ is important. The paper provides indisputable evidence that neuron activity within the outer layer of the evolving brain’s cerebrum responded to stereoscopic magnetic stimulation by exhibiting two symmetrical geometrical planes of 3D information, interlocking to bring about a state of asymmetrical information, demonstrating the existence of psychophysical reasoning beyond the parameters of prevailing tribal scientific logic. Leonardo’s conviction that plane geometry could not contain true 3D imagery has been shown to be false by electromagnetic medical cancer research as well as by paintings proving he was not part of Plato’s futuristic educational system.

Immanuel Kant, the founding father the electromagnetic ‘Golden Age of Danish Science’, agreed that Plato’s concern that demonized aesthetical, artistic pleasure needed to be balanced by a spiritual, artistic wisdom. He wrote that this wisdom was in fact an asymmetrical electromagnetic, spiritual field evolving within the creative, artistic mind.

This transition of dysfunctional tribal information to fragments of 3D human survival science comprehension, must obviously be creating a serious global medical problem. Epidemiologists appointed by governments to be responsible for such epidemics have classified the 3D dysfunctional information as a global epidemic transmitted by the mass production of dysfunctional communication and information devices. Being subservient to tribal science dictates that they have no antidote for the social damage it is causing. However, the nature of the antidote has been discovered by developing Szent-Gyorgyi’s cancer research, in which the energies of destructive chaos entangle with healthy information to evolve universal consciousness.

A high resolution picture exists of the geometrical shape that the human cell adopts prior to forming its divisional process to create replica cells. It is obviously an infinite fractal expression undergoing an electromagnetic function associated with the dividing process. Epidemiologists looking for an antidote to the global 3D disinformation epidemic realized that Cantor’s infinite mathematics must somehow be involved. They referred to the dividing process as one obeying some form of Cantorian ‘sensibility’. David Hilbert is acknowledged as one of the most influential mathematicians of the 19th and 20th Centuries. He was one of the few scientists who agreed that Cantor’s mathematics was a bridge to the understanding of the nature of infinity.

Hilbert and Einstein worked together on the differences between symmetrical physical reality and electromagnetic biological reality. The main difference was that mechanistic, symmetrical, electromagnetic fields rotate in the opposite direction to living asymmetrical fields. Kant had identified the latter as belonging to Plato’s search for an ethical, spiritual, electromagnetic field evolving within the creative, artistic mind.

Einstein, along with the epidemiologists were locked into a physical, symmetrical world-view. As a consequence Einstein lost interest in Hilbert’s research. Einstein’s view of the physical structure of quantum mechanics embraced a symmetrical concept of reality. He was unable to associate this reality being entangled with Kant and Hilbert’s spiritual, asymmetrical, electromagnetic field belonging to the evolution of healthy artistic wisdom, associated with infinite consciousness.

From the high resolution picture of healthy cell division it became obvious that when poised to divide, the cell generated an electromagnetic field that simply prevented the dysfunctional information from being transmitted to its replica cell. The transfer of the carcinogenic information at a later stage of cellular development is a medical problem requiring antidote information encoded into what, as previously mentioned, has been incorrectly classified as junk DNA.

Both tribal science and human survival antidote science are part of human evolution, so they can be entangled together within a computer program in order to generate a balanced medical human survival diagnosis. All that is required is for the program to be controlled by relevant indisputable human survival scientific instructions to obtain the human survival blueprint.

A relevant computer medical diagnosis can be programmed to emulate the effects of dopamine, a compound in the body controlling human emotions causing compulsive behaviour. At junctions within the nervous system dopamine can build up to create overpowering electromagnetic cravings, constantly governing various aspects of a dysfunctional personality. A simple low powered medical device exists, which can emit a signal that allows the mind to free itself from the overpowering emotional ‘lust’ compulsion, bringing about the capacity to rationalize over self harming rather that a compulsion to inflict harm upon others.

A quote from George Bernard Shaw “Two percent of the people think; three percent of the people think they think; and ninety-five percent of the people would rather die than think.” can be considered to be relevant regarding the fact that so called geniuses, who think they can think, are actually being governed by the emotive tribal genius of very few people.

The shrewd, intuitive, emotional ingenuity of world leaders is extremely valuable. If a computer medical analysis providing the balancing antidote to unscrupulous Plutocratic tribal desires is obtained, then it would also include information giving them access to ethical wealth and power far beyond their tribal mindset’s ability to imagine. It is up to the three percent of the people who think they think, to provide rock solid evidence supporting human survival within the working of a holographic universe in order to bring Plato’s Science for Ethical Ends into existence. Once that is done then world leaders can begin to entertain dialogue concerning an ethical antidote ethos, now that science has come to understand the workings of the holographic universe that we inhabit. They can modify Rene Descates’ tribal axiom “I think, therefore I am” to read “We feel and think, therefore we are”.

Bertrand Russell, known for his emotional allegiance to Babylonian mathematical culture, in 1903 wrote his most famous essay entitled ‘A Free Man’s Worship’ advocating that civilization must worship the Second Law of Thermodynamics that Einstein insisted must govern all of the sciences.

The Russell-Einstein Manifesto proclaimed on the 9th of July, 1955, was about the dangers of nuclear weapons development and called for world leaders to seek peaceful resolutions to international conflict. This famous manifesto was not worth the paper it was written on, as the prevailing North Korean nuclear crisis demonstrates. Plato’s science intended to prevent nuclear destruction caused by the emergence of unformed matter from within the atom, now warrants a crucial investigation concerning the upgrading of tribal science into a science capable of generating the human survival blueprint.

The Australian 2017 Nobel Peace Prize Group, working with the United Nations Security Council regarding the need to nullify the threat of Nuclear weapon proliferation, surely warrants input from scientists who understand the basic functioning of the holographic universe. By collaborating with world leaders about implementing Plato’s Science for Ethical Ends as a medical antidote to avoid nuclear destruction, scientists can be seen as honourung the greatest responsibility associated with their scientific professions.

Fun Learning Apps Helping People With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Children with autism spectrum disorder usually face difficulty in processing information that involves the five senses. Smells, noises, and bright lights often unnerve them. These are initial signs that a child may be autistic. But thankfully, fun learning apps like “What’s the Expression” and “Make Sentences” have made a world of difference to autistic children by helping them with sensory and motor skills.

These fun educational apps have become much-loved learning devices for autistic children. Gadgets like the iPad, smartphone, and tabs have opened up a new learning horizon for children. Autistic children usually have a high level of digital readiness. Device-based learning is often a second nature to most of them.

Autism is a complex brain development disorder. According to a recent study in the US, one in 45 kids aged between three to 17, have autism spectrum disorder.

Children with autism often struggle in the following cases.

Social interaction: How do people relate to each other? Institutions, systems, and rules take root in small and large groups, and in on-on-one situations.

Repetitive behaviors: Autistic children are known to display repetitive behaviors. These may include head banging, hand flapping, and rocking to and fro.

Communication drawbacks: Exchange of information between two persons can take place without speaking. Non-verbal cues include hand gestures and body language. Autistic children face difficulty in recognizing these signs.

Fun learning apps like “What’s the Expression” and “Make Sentences” can help autistic children detect the nonverbal communication cues. These apps also help teachers, parents, and therapists.

Enthused by the success of the “What’s the Expression” and “Make Sentences” educational apps, many companies have started developing their own apps which they believe are powerful tools to reach out to autistic people.

What has really come to the help of autistic children, is the easy availability of the technological devices on which these apps can run. Smart phones, tabs, and iPads are within the reach of most people, compared to the hugely expensive assistive communication devices. The modern digital devices have come as a boon for children with autism spectrum disorder.

The fun learning apps for kids have helped autistic children in many ways. Most importantly, they help special needs kids to construct sentences and determine the expression to a particular response. These educational apps can be customized according to the specific needs of the child since no two autistic kids are the same. The fun learning apps are really proving to be helpful.

4 Reasons to Make Use of a Translation Service

Any business looking to expand into a foreign market is likely to benefit from a translation service. While there are plenty of online or free services that can help to translate text into a foreign language, they can’t always be relied on to give anywhere near 100% accuracy. If you really want your business to succeed, you will find that a professional service is the most effective option.

Let’s take a look at four reasons to use this type of service:


There is much less risk of experiencing the embarrassing errors when using a translation service. Any poorly translated text can have a negative impact and make your business look bad. The online translation tools are a quick and efficient option to get an idea of the meaning of a short piece of text in a foreign language, but cannot be relied on to translate a large portion of text or a complete website. Also, many of these tools have difficulty with translating words that have several meanings and unable to use context to make the right choice.


The trained linguists have studied translation and have the knowledge to easier provide the accurate translations. They are able to deal with words that have several meanings and also cultural issues in the texts. Also, their past training will mean that they are fast and efficient at completing the work. On occasion, translation software may be partly used to help with consistency issues and to work faster.


Many of the translators offer their services in a specific area of business or industry. It will certainly benefit to use one of the specialists if hoping to have complex text translated that has a lot of industry specific terms and phrases. While a general translator can be used, they will likely find it more difficult to translate the text with a lot of medical, financial or similar technical information.


Any translating service that is a full-size business or an individual freelancer will have proper terms and conditions in place. This will make the entire ordering and translating process as smooth as possible. This can include issues related to confidentiality, copy, text type, delivery, and payment options. Any quote offered by the professionals will always highlight the terms and conditions to make it really easy to understand the service offered.

Overall, if you are looking to translate text for your business into a foreign language, a professional service is essential to avoid making your brand look bad.

Best Way to Study for Project Management Professional Exams

The Project Management Professional, or PMP, certificate is one of the most important certificates that a project manager could obtain. The test is vital to ensuring that you have the necessary qualifications to interview for project manager positions, whether you are interviewing at a major corporation or a startup. Studies also show that IT professionals who obtain the PMP certificate are going to earn at least 15 to 20 percent more than individuals who are working the same job, but do not have the certificate. That shows how important professional examinations such as the PMP can be!

These benefits are why it is so important to study for examinations in the right way. It is never easy, especially when you are settled in a work rhythm. You go to the office in the day and you have time to yourself in the evening and night. It is tough to break that routine, especially for studying. But if you spend a few weeks preparing for the PMP exam, or another professional exam that relates to your ideal job, it can help you in a major way. But what is the most effective method to study for these exams? Here is a comparison of two methods.

1. Reviewing All the Possible Material

The first method is the most straightforward – you will study every bit of material that could be related to the exam. Even though this method will take you a long time, it will ensure that you are fully prepared for anything the exam can throw at you. However, not everyone has an empty schedule to study for such an exam, especially if you are working in the meantime. That is why we need something a little more efficient.

2. Studying the Exam Itself

We recommend studying the exam itself, which involves doing a lot of sample questions and taking a few practice tests. You will start by taking a complete practice test before you study anything. Then, assess your results and see what types of questions or sections were your weakest. This will give you a baseline that you can use for the remaining study days. Focus your time on the weak areas and just spend a bit of time revising those sections where you got close to full marks.

The good news is that you can find a few reputable online sites where sample questions and practice tests are available. These are legitimate sites where industry leaders are vetting and posting sample questions from the most recent editions of these professional exams.

Say you are interested in the PMP exam. You would go on the PMP page on a reputable sample questions website, and it would allow you to check out hundreds of sample questions as you prepare for the test. The best sites even include question discussion sections, where you can check out how others answered tough questions – if you are unable to arrive at the right answer yourself.

When it comes to professional exams, it is always a good idea to prepare efficiently. By studying the exam through sample questions and practice tests, you will pass every exam at the first try.

The Benefits of Vocational Training for the Disabled

Disabilities come in a wide range of conditions and disorders. One might be born physically disabled, while being perfectly mentally capable of working and functioning in the society. Some become disabled later in life, due to certain diseases or accidents. Others are born physically healthy, but with some mental or intellectual disabilities. No matter what one’s condition might be, the disabled are a part of the society, just like all of us, and it is our duty to accept them, and help them integrate, realizing their self-worth.

There has been a lot of talk on the topic of the disabled, but it often just remains an empty talk about political correctness, without or with little action taken. Instead of just talking, we need to start working on including them into society by providing them with decent education and better chances of employment later on in life. Vocational training for the disabled is an integral part in this process, and has to be approached carefully and taken seriously in order to implement it the right way.

Disabled children (and in this case it mostly refers to the children with mental and learning disabilities) are often pushed into inclusion programmes, i.e. they are stuck in classes with other children and have to learn and study at the same rate. Off course, this is not an entirely a bad thing. The idea behind this is quite legitimate – making both regular children and children with disabilities get acquainted with each other and explore each other’s worlds, while including special needs children into the regular stream of life.

However, this might not work for everyone, every time. First of all, the teachers in regular classes are not well versed in working with special needs kids, and are thus often, if not almost always, unable to approach them in a right way, and pass their knowledge on to them. I courses in teaching each semester at the university, and not one of them focuses on this topic! Furthermore, the tempo of teaching in regular classes is often not suitable for the disabled, making them even more confused and falling behind. These two factors can often lead to further marginalisation of the disabled, instead of providing them with the means for getting on in life. For this reason, we need vocational training for the disabled, with teachers who are well versed in teaching this way, and courses which are tailored for the disabled.

Another great bonus of having special vocational training for the disabled (or at least, special education classes in regular schools) is that these classes are usually smaller than regular ones, which usually have 20+ students and are mostly overcrowded. This means that the teacher can focus on every student more easily, thus individualising their approach for every student. This is especially important in a special education context, where each student needs much more attention, support and love from the teacher than in usual classes, and more attention means more progress and better learning.

Dealing with a disabled person, especially if it is a child might be difficult, and is always challenging, requiring a ton of patience and hard work. However, finding a suitable vocational training and education for them will help a lot, as it will help them fulfil their potential and use the maximum of their abilities.

The Many Benefits of Learning Mandarin for Kids

Parents invest in sending their kids to attend Mandarin class because many believe that it is an important language of trade that will benefit their children’s career opportunities in the future. Economist Albert Saiz finds that native English speaker graduates who speak a second language, on average, earn 2 per cent more than those who don’t. Different foreign languages attract different language bonus – the more in demand a foreign language is, the higher the language bonus.

Knowing the language of our major trade partners is an asset. Graduates with foreign language skills will greatly improve their career opportunities at home and overseas. They would also improve their academic opportunities by having a chance to study at overseas educational institutions, an excellent experience to broaden their horizon and enrich their resume. Graduates with international experience are valued by employers. It’s not just people who work in international trade or diplomatic services who would reap benefits from having foreign language skills. Jim Rogers, a successful businessman, urges people to learn at least one Asian language because it will give them a competitive advantage. He himself sent his children to learn Mandarin at an early age to future-proof them.

The benefits of learning Mandarin for kids do not just lie in future opportunities. Studies support that children who are bilinguals or multilinguals are academically ahead of their peers. Learning a second language helps improve children’s academic performance, especially in English and Mathematics. According to a research, languages such as Chinese expresses mathematical concepts more clearly and thus making it easier for small children to learn maths. Children who learn Mandarin are also reported to perform better in identifying musical pitch and hence may perform better than their peers in building musical skills. This is not a surprise since Chinese is a tonal language. Learning the language will naturally train children to be able to identify the different tones. In essence, all the skills children are gaining through the process of learning a foreign language can transfer meaningfully to other areas in life.

Children who learn a foreign language are also shown to have better problem solving skills, creativity, and multitasking skills. This is not a surprise since children are required to think in a different way while learning to speak a foreign language. This mental training delivers multiple cognitive advantages to young learners, in addition to having advanced cross-cultural skills and linguistic skills.

All You Need to Know About Becoming a Registered Nurse

Registered Nurses form an integral part of the Australian healthcare system, and find employment in a variety of roles and healthcare settings. Currently, the demand for skilled Registered Nurses in the country is on the increase and reports that the future growth in this sector is also expected to be very strong. Workforce planning projections from the Department of Health, Australia, clearly indicate that in the medium to the long term the demand for nurses in Australia will significantly outweigh supply, with an estimated shortfall of at least 85,000 nurses by 2025.

Given that the career outlook in this sector is so strong, this is the best time to consider a career as a Registered Nurse in Australia! If you are interested in this career option, then you must have a Bachelor Degree or higher qualification, and at least 5 years of relevant experience. Registration or licensing is with the AHPRA is also required.

The Bachelor of Nursing, which is available at most Australian universities, is a three year full-time course of study. You can apply via direct entry − or after completing a Diploma of Nursing, in which case some credits may be transferred toward your Bachelor’s Degree.

If you wish to apply, you must be over 17 years of age or should have completed your HSC. Registered Nurse courses offer a blend of theory and practical nursing education in various settings. You should be willing to work very hard, as the course is rigorous and requires a deep commitment to the profession. Before committing to a degree, you could choose to undertake a short course and work as an Individual Support or Community Care worker, which will allow you to find out more about working as a nurse before you apply to university.

How to become a Registered Nurse in Australia

On successful completion of your Registered Nurse course, you have to apply to the AHPRA (Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency) to practice as a Registered Nurse in the country. If you are an overseas qualified nurse, you could undertake a short bridging course to bring you up to speed with the nursing environment in this country. Subsequently, you can obtain AHPRA registration and start your practice.

As a student, you will be exposed to clinical rotations in diverse healthcare settings, and you can use this time to explore various fields of nursing and find out if you wish to undertake a specialty. As your career evolves, you may opt to specialise in a particular area of healthcare such as maternity, surgery, aged care, disability, mental health, and so on, and you can become a subject matter expert in your particular domain. Later on, you can even study further to become a healthcare manager or an administrator. Nurses make excellent managers as they are well versed in all aspects of the operation of the healthcare system.